Brain Monitoring

Understanding what allows us to sense, move, think and feel.

Neurons

86 BILLION NEURONS 1

Neurons communicate through electrical and chemical signals. The specific properties of the neurons composing a brain area and their connections with neurons in other brain areas, define the function of a brain area (e.g. language, vision, movement).

Monitoring Neural Activity

We Can Record Electrical Signals

There are different ways to record and monitor neural activity. Our solution is to provide electrodes that are placed on top of or within the brain and capture the activity of a group of neurons located underneath/around each contact. The signals recorded are called intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) or electrocorticography (ECoG) signals. The shape, amplitude and frequency of these electrical signals provide a readout of the activity of that brain area.

Monitoring Neurological Disorders

Neurological diseases may be associated with disturbances in neural activity and connectivity between brain areas. The changes in the shape, amplitude and frequency of recorded electrical signals may be used to identify areas with altered activity. 2

Epilepsy

Epilepsy is the disease associated with spontaneously recurring seizures. A seizure is a sudden, uncontrolled electrical disturbance in the brain. It can cause changes in behavior, movements or feelings, and in levels of consciousness. There are different types of seizures and their characterization and classification helps guiding the treatment.

There are more than twenty seven FDA-approved drugs for the treatment of seizures. However, in ~1/3 of the patients medication fails to control their seizures. These patients are candidates for surgical options. 3, 4

Resource for information on Epilepsy, treatment and surgical options:

Patient Evaluation for Epilepsy Surgery

Patient selection for surgical options is based on non-invasive and invasive evaluations.

Phase 1 - Non-invasive 5
The first step to provide a baseline exam is performed in order to determine where the seizure activity in the brain begins. No surgery is required for this phase, and typically involves imaging.

Phase 2 - Invasive 6,7
When phase I results are not conclusive, patients undergo Invasive intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) – or a Phase 2 evaluation, using:

  • Cortical Electrodes - Strips and grids
  • Stereoelectroencephalography - sEEG

This phase is typically performed usually in levels 3, 4 National Association of Epilepsy Centers*.

NeuroOne Conferences and Scientific Participation

  1. Congress of Neurosurgical Surgeons - CNS
    Presentation Type: Oral Presentation
    Title: First FDA Cleared Thin Film Electrode for Intracranial Recording and Monitoring of Brain Activity – Device Testing and Initial Clinical Use
    Presentation Date: October 19, 2021 - (07:00 AM - 08:30 AM)
    Session: Sunrise Science and Late Breaking Abstract Session IV

  2. Society of Neuroscience - SFN
    Presentation Type: Virtual Poster, Abstract #952
    Title: Device testing and initial clinical use of thin film electrodes for intracranial recording and monitoring of brain activity
    Session Number: P545
    Presentation Number: P545.09
    Session Title: Neurophysiology: Implanted Electrodes and Other Direct Interactions with Neurons I
    Virtual Poster Session Time: 11/10/2021 2:15:00 PM - 11/10/2021 3:15:00 PM CT

  3. American Epilepsy Society - AES
    Presentation Type: Poster Presentation: In-Person/Virtual
    Title: First FDA Cleared Thin Film Electrode for Intracranial Recording and Monitoring of Brain Activity – Device Testing and Initial Clinical Use
    Poster Session #: 2.094

NeuroOne Past Abstracts and Articles

  1. Commercial Scale Production of Thin-Film Electrode Arrays for Clinical Intracranial EEG*
    Ref: Gregory A. Worrell et al.
    American Epilepsy Society. 2019

  2. Development of polyimide electrodes for high-resolution intracranial EEG recordings*
    Ref: Regina Bower et al.
    American Epilepsy Society. 2017

  3. Multi-resolution Intracranial EEG Rodent Recording System*
    Ref: Inyong Kim et al.
    American Epilepsy Society. 2017

  4. 2019 Frontiers in Medical Devices Abstracts, Biomedical Engineering Society Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation of the Brain Using a Virtual Patient Population*
    Ref: Erica E. Neumann et al.
    Biomedical Engineering Society

Other Relevant Scientific Articles and Abstracts

  1. Human Intracranial EEG: Promises and Limitations*
    Ref: Joseph Parvizi and Sabine Kastner
    Nature Neuroscience. 2018 Apr; 21(4): 474–483.

  2. Intracranial EEG in the 21st Century*
    Ref: Barbara C. Jobst et al.
    Epilepsy Current. 2020, Vol. 20(4) 180-188

  3. Diagnostic utility of invasive EEG for epilepsy surgery: Indications, modalities, and techniques*
    Ref: Prasanna Jayakar et al.
    Epilepsia. 57(11):1735-1747, 2016

  4. Stereoelectroencephalography in epilepsy, cognitive neurophysiology, and psychiatric disease: safety, efficacy, and place in therapy*
    Ref: Youngerman BE et al.
    Dove Press journal: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment

Footnotes

*The links provided through this page are not under the control of NeuroOne and are provided strictly for your convenience. NeuroOne does not represent, warrant, or endorse such web sites, and is not responsible or liable for the accuracy, currency, completeness, availability or reliability of such web sites or the content, products or services obtained from such web sites. NeuroOne shall have no liability for any damages or injuries of any kind arising from the content of or products or services obtained from such web sites.

1. Frederico A C Azevedo , Ludmila R B Carvalho, Lea T Grinberg, José Marcelo Farfel, Renata E L Ferretti, Renata E P Leite, Wilson Jacob Filho, Roberto Lent, Suzana Herculano-Houzel, J Comp Neurol. 2009 Apr 10;513(5):532-41. doi: 10.1002/cne.21974. Equal numbers of neuronal and nonneuronal cells make the human brain an isometrically scaled-up primate brain https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19226510/

2. Josef Parvizi, Sabine Kastner, Nat Neurosci. 2018 Apr; 21(4): 474–483. doi: 10.1038/s41593-018-0108-2 Human Intracranial EEG: Promises and Limitations, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6476542/

3. Vossler et al, 2018 Epilepsy Curr. 2018 Jul-Aug; 18(4 Suppl 1): 1–26. doi: 10.5698/1535-7597.18.4s1.1 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6130739/

4. https://www.aesnet.org/clinical_resources/treatments/drug_alerts_fda_news

5. Baumgartner et al., F1000Res 2019 Oct 29;8:F1000 Faculty Rev-1818. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.17714.1. Presurgical epilepsy evaluation and epilepsy surgery https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31700611/

6. Jayakar et al., Epilepsia. 2016 Nov;57(11):1735-1747. doi: 10.1111/epi.13515. Diagnostic utility of invasive EEG for epilepsy surgery: Indications, modalities, and techniques PMID: 27677490 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27677490/

7. George et al, Front Neurol. 2020 May 12;11:320. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2020.00320 Stimulation Mapping Using Stereoelectroencephalography: Current and Future Directions https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32477236/

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